LEARN ABOUT TREATMENT OF GIT DISEASE
DRUG USED IN THE TREATMENT OF GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE
Nausea and vomiting are protective reflexes that help to remove toxic substances from the gastrointestinal tract. They are the symptoms of altered function but are not disease. Nausea denotes the feeling of impending vomiting, whereas vomiting refers to the forceful expulsion of the contents of the stomach and upper intestinal tract through the mouth. Retching is he laboured rhythmic respiratory activity which usually preceeds vomiting.
The act of vomiting is controlled by the vomiting centre in the medulla. Stimuli are relayed to this centre from peripheral areas that is gastric mucuosa and other parts of GIT. Sensory stimuli also arise within the central nervous system itself – the impulses are transmitted to the vomiting centre.
The lack of blood brain barrier at the chemoreceptor trigger zone allows it to be directly stimulated by blood borne drugs and toxic substances. Nausea and vomiting may be the symptoms of pregnancy, serious organic substances of almost any of the viscera or may be produced by infection, drugs, radiation, painful stimuli motion sickness metabolic and emotional distrubances. The main neurotransmitter involved in the control of vomiting are acetylcholine histamine 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine.
The drugs that cause vomiting are called emetics. Eg mustard, common salt, ipeac, and apomorphine. Mustard and common salt are commonly used household emetics. Syrup ipeac is a safer emetic than apomorphine. Emetics are indicated in certain case of poisoning.
Contraindications for the use of emetics are:
- Unconscious patients
- Corrosive and caustic poisoning
- Poisoning due to CNS stimulants
- Kerosene poisoning
The drugs that are used to prevent or control vomiting are called antiemetics.
- Anticholinergics: scolpolamine, dicyclomine
- Antihistamine(h1 blockers): dimenhydrinate, diphenhydramine, cyclizine, meclizine, hydroxyzine
- 5-HT3 receptor anatagonist: ondansetron, dolasetron, palonosetron
- Prokinetic agents: metoclopramide, domperidone
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